Welcome to Plenum Creaturis! Lectionary readings, Hebrew notes, Greek notes


Important note = I use the Revised Common Lectionary website of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library to check the lectionary readings for each Sunday.

Introduction = What are “lections” and how are they formatted?

A few basic goals of this website =

  1. Start posting the lections for each Sunday and do so without missing a Sunday. In other words gradually post a complete set.
  2. Gradually assign better and more consistent names to files containing the lectionary readings. After several years naming files Texts_Sunday_Date henceforth will name files with lectionary readings Lections_Sunday_Date. If there is a quick and dirty way to rename a list of files in Windows 7 that would be nice. I used to know how to do that in DOS. Good times.
  3. Over the years I have switched which English translations to include in the lectionary reading files. I used to include New International Version and New Revised Standard Version. Became disillusioned with the NIV and started to include the English Standard Version. Since I began serving under the United Methodist Church began to include the Contemporary English Bible instead of the ESV. The United Methodist Church seems to favor the CEB and NRSV. I prefer the ESV over the CEB and therefore will include the ESV as well.

So henceforth [Ed – “henceforth” from when?] the lections files will include (1) ESV (2) CEB (3) NRSV (4) LXX aka Septuagint (if applicable) (5) MT aka Masoretic Text (if applicable) and (6) GNT aka Greek New Testament (if applicable). I also insert a page break so that no one page contains more than one lection or portion thereof.

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Adding links to the Septuagint and Aramaic Targumim


Since I started adding links to BibleGateway – so that dear visitors could view biblical texts in English and in Hebrew or Greek – it only made sense to expand this idea to other translations and versions such as the Septuagint and Targumim. So starting in about September 2018 I sometimes add links so that visitors can view the verse/passage in the Septuagint or Targumim when it seems relevant (text critical or hermeneutics). I have been unable to find a website that works like BibleGateway for viewing individual verses in translation alongside original for the Septuagint and Targumim. A good friend and colleague directed me to the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon project that allows one to view a specific verse in Aramaic and Syriac. Kata Biblion allows one to view not individual verses but a given chapter in the Septuagint – alongside an “open” English translation. Note that for some verses/chapters the chapter:number is quite different from the MT and/or English.

Posted in Announcements, Aramaic, Bible, Greek, Greek notes, Hebrew notes | Tagged , , , , ,

Adding BibleGateway links to notes and translations

Translation links

I continue to think of small ways hopefully to improve the materials offered on this website. One is relatively simple. I will start to add hyperlinks to biblical references in the Translation files – specifically to BibleGateway (here is an example). [Added 2018-08-18 – And in the Lectionary files and Hebrew/Greek notes.] Sometimes the notes say “compare to such and such verse” (especially to that verse or those verses in Greek or Hebrew). I will also start to add hyperlinks to the passage being translated/discussed in both English and Hebrew/Greek.

Update 2018-08-13 = The links in PDF versions of notes usually do not work. For years I have used PrimoPDF to export files to PDF format. Recently I discovered that hyperlinks in PDF files created with PrimoPDF do not work. Today I figured out how to export Word files to PDF format so that (1) hyperlinks are included and (2) fonts look the same. I will gradually go back and revise/export notes posted before today.

Posted in Announcements, Bible, Translation notes | Tagged

Greek notes = John 18:33-37

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Lections = Christ the King (B) or Reign of Christ (B)

Lections_ChristtheKingB_ReignofChristB_201811 (PDF)
Lections_ChristtheKingB_ReignofChristB_201811 (DOCX)

Hebrew notes = 2 Samuel 23:1-7
Hebrew notes = Psalm 132:1-12, (13-18)
Hebrew notes = Daniel 7:9-10, 13-14
Hebrew notes = Psalm 93

Greek notes = Revelation 1:4-8
Greek notes = John 18:33-37

< 26th Sunday after Pentecost (B)
> 1st Sunday of Lent (C)

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Greek notes = Revelation 1:4-8

greeknotes_revelation-1-4-8-ubs5 (PDF)
greeknotes_revelation-1-4-8-ubs5 (DOCX)

Christ the King (B) or Reign of Christ (B)

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Hebrew notes = Psalm 127:1-5

Hebrewnotes_Psalm 127.1-5b (PDF)
Hebrewnotes_Psalm 127.1-5b (DOCX)

25th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

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Lections = 26th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

lections_26pentecostb_201811 (PDF)
lections_26pentecostb_201811 (DOCX)

Hebrew notes = 1 Samuel 1:4-20
Hebrew notes = 1 Samuel 2:1-10
Hebrew notes = Daniel 12:1-3
Hebrew notes = Psalm 16

Greek notes = Hebrews 10:11-25

Notes_26PentecostB_1Samuel1_20181118 (PDF)
Notes_26PentecostB_1Samuel1_20181118 (DOCX)

< 25th Sunday after Pentecost (B)
> Christ the King (B) or Reign of Christ (B)

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Greek notes = Hebrews 10:11-25

Greeknotes_Hebrews 10.11-25 UBS5 (PDF)
Greeknotes_Hebrews 10.11-25 UBS5 (DOCX)

26th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

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Lections = 25th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

Lections_25PentecostB_201811 (DOCX)
Lections_25PentecostB_201811 (PDF)

Hebrew notes = Ruth 3:1-5, 4:13-17
Hebrew notes = 1 Kings 17:8-16
Hebrew notes = Psalm 146
Hebrew notes = Psalm 127

Greek notes = Hebrews 9:24-28
Greek notes = Mark 12:38-44

Notes_Ruth3-4_25PentecostB_20181111 (DOCX)
Notes_Ruth3-4_25PentecostB_20181111 (PDF)

< 24th Sunday after Pentecost (B)
> 26th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

Posted in Bible, Lectionary, Needs attention, No notes yet | Tagged , , | 11 Comments

Chaos and/versus(?) the Fall in Job 40-41


“Look at Behemoth,
    which I made just as I made you;
    it eats grass like an ox.
16 Its strength is in its loins,
    and its power in the muscles of its belly.
17 It makes its tail stiff like a cedar;
    the sinews of its thighs are knit together.
18 Its bones are tubes of bronze,
    its limbs like bars of iron.
19 It is the first of the great acts of God
    only its Maker can approach it with the sword. (NRSV)

The book of Job received some attention last month in the Revised Common Lectionary. Last week I preached from Job 38 (which was one of the lections for the previous Sunday). Why preach from Job? Two chief reasons. One was simply that Job does not receive much attention. The other is that Job 38 is a magnificent text. It is the first of the four divine speeches (two groups of two speeches) addressed to Job toward the end of the book. Up until that point God has been present by virtue of his apparent absence. He has given Job room in which to accuse and complain. Job want to confront God face to face. And God finally gives Job what he wants. Sort of. Job has accused God especially in terms that draw upon wisdom tradition. The עֵצָ֥ה etsah “counsel (or plan or purpose)” of God is darkness. Job has called into question the etsah, the wisdom and understanding of God. So God responds to Job on Job’s own terms.

“Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge?
Gird up your loins like a man,
    I will question you, and you shall declare to me.
“Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?
    Tell me, if you have understanding. (NRSV)

God challanges Job in the form of three main questions:

  • Who are you?
  • Where were you?
  • Are you able? Can you?

Who is Job? He is a creature who like all human beings bears the “royal image” of God. When God created everything where was Job? He was not there. Is Job able to answer these questions? Or perhaps we can ask does Job have the wisdom, the understanding, the counsel to create all things? No. As my friend and colleague summarized aptly what God says to Job is “you are not God”.

God does not truly answer the questions raised by Job. Rather(?) God presents Job with a magnificent vision of creation – interspersed with those three questions – that strangely enough does not mention human beings. Or rather it does because God is speaking to a human being. The universe – or at least the foundation of the earth. Followed by the natural order – focusing entirely on “wild” and undomesticated nature and animals (with the possible exception of Job 38:36 and the שֶּׂ֣כְוִי sekwi(y) which might mean “rooster”). Job wants to question how God runs the universe? God invites Job to consider a vast and mysterious universe full of creatures (and here I include galaxies, stars, and planets which are indeed creatures) so many of whom are outside everyday human experience. God hunts with lions and gives wisdom to birds. In a way God says “Job you and all human beings are part of something infinitely larger and more complex than what you can understand. There is logic and order to the universe and how I govern it. However it is beyond your limited wisdom. Trust me and be at peace” (paraphrasing Ronald Clements, New Interpreter’s Bible Commentary, volume 3).

So far so good we sort of understand what God is saying. And that brings us to Job 40-41. “Look at Behemoth. Can you draw out Leviathan?” Behemoth and Leviathan represent chaos or the forces of chaos. Chaos is part of creation. God invites Job to a transformed understanding of his vocation as creature, as a human being who bears the royal image of God the Creator (Gerald Janzen, Interpretation), and as such represents God within creation, working for and with God to manage, care for, and continue creation. God invites Job to live as a creature on creation’s terms. And the terms of creation include chaos. Chaos is a necessary(?) part of creation.

I have an idea for another post about this topic. How do we have a relatively stable solar system and a relatively stable hospitable world on which we live? Largely because of (1) Jupiter and (2) millions of years of intense chaos – generated by Jupiter with help from Saturn.

This raises a theological question. What I would venture to call a theological problem. Normally we Christian (and Jewish) believers would say chaos – moral evil and arguably natural evil along with suffering – is a contagion introduced because the first human beings rebelled against God. What we call the Fall – although one of my teachers in seminary preferred to call it the Falling Apart.

And to the man[b] he said,
“Because you have listened to the voice of your wife,
    and have eaten of the tree
about which I commanded you,
    ‘You shall not eat of it,’
cursed is the ground because of you;
    in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life. (Genesis 3:17; NRSV)

Why is the world broken and messed up? Because of us.

19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the children of God; 20 for the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope 21 that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and will obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 22 We know that the whole creation has been groaning in labor pains until now. (Romans 8:19; NRSV)

This does raise a few questions. Why should the world be cursed because of us? That seems unfair. And yes there are some good answers. I will not get into that here but simply postulate the common understanding that we human beings messed up and the world is broken because of us.

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Greek notes = Mark 12:38-44

Greeknotes_Mark 12.38-44 UBS5 (PDF)
Greeknotes_Mark 12.38-44 UBS5 (DOCX)

25th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

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Lections = 24th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

lections_24pentecostb_201811 (PDF)
lections_24pentecostb_201811 (DOCX)

Hebrew notes = Ruth 1:1-18
Hebrew notes = Psalm 146
Hebrew notes = Deuteronomy 6:1-9
Hebrew notes = Psalm 119:1-8

Greek notes = Mark 12:28-34
Greek notes = Hebrews 9:11-14

Notes_Deuteronomy6_24PentecostB_20181104 (PDF)
Notes_Deuteronomy6_24PentecostB_20181104 (DOCX)

< 23rd Sunday after Pentecost (B)
> 25th Sunday after Pentecost (B)

Posted in Bible, Lectionary | Tagged , , | 8 Comments